The word Assam derives from the word asama, meaning ‘peerless’ is now called Ahom language. Former Capital of Assam was Shillong which is now the Capital of Meghalaya. From 1972, the capital of Assam Is Dispur. The statehood of Assam is from 26 January, 1950. Its total area is about 78,438km^2.
Assam is located in the Northeastern part of India which is bounded to the north by the kingdom of Bhutan and the state of Arunachal Pradesh, to the east by the state of Nagaland and Manipur, to the south by the state of Mizoram and Tripura, and to the west by Bangladesh and the states of Meghalaya and West Bengal.
The language of Assam is almost similar with Bangladeshi language which are both derived from ‘Indo-European’ language and ‘Bongo-kamrupi’ language and which is spoken by over 15 million speakers and serves as a lingua franca (common language) in the region. The language of Assam is mainly called Asamiya or Assamese language which is pronounced like [Ͻxomia]. Common dialects of these states are Eastern, Central, Kamrupi, Goalpariya.
Assamese peoples are mainly amalgamation of multi-ethnic, multi-linguistic and multi-religious society. According to census 2011, out of 13,257,272 Assamese people, a majority of 10,013,013 or 75.52% Assamese people are Hindus, the largest minority of 2,830,072 or 21.34% are Muslims, and 414,187 or 3.14% are Christians and Sikhs by religion.
At first the traditional dress of Assamese women is ‘mekhela’ and men is ‘Suriya’ or ‘Dhoti’.
‘Gamosa’ is an essential part of almost all socio-religious ceremonies in Assam.
Generally Assam is rich in Folk music. Classical Assamese music is divided into Borgeet and Ojapali which combines narrative singing with dancing. The music Oja-Pli has a raga system of clear traditional orientation.
The traditional crafts like pottery and terracotta work, brass craft, jewellery making cane and bamboo craft silk and cotton weaving and woodcrafts are very famous in whole India which has emerged in Assam during more than two thousand years.
The most famous and important festivals are “Bihu”, “Rongali Bihu”, “kangali Bihu”,”Magh Bihu” etc. “Ali-Ali-Ligang” is their spring festive.
Famous traditional dance forms of Assam’s are “Ojapali”, “Devdasi”, “Satriya” which are based on myths. “Bagurumba” dance is famous during the Kherai puja. And most importantly their famous dance style “Jhumur” dance is performed by their Adivasis.
History of Assam
In short, at 1228, they came from southeast China’s ‘Mong-mao-Lung provision to the valley of Brahmaputra. They reached the valley through Patkai hills. These migrated people belonged to Tai ethnicity and led by a great leader. The word ‘Ahom’ means more powerful or in equal to them. After entering the British, ‘Ahom’ turns into ‘Assam’. So, the name ‘Assam’ is the British name, given by Britishers to signify the land of the Brahmaputra valley, where Ahom ruled around 600 years. The leader Chaolung Sukapha established the Ahom kingdom in 1228 in the Brahmaputra valley. Later Sukaphaa transferred it to Charaideo in 1253. So, Sukaphaa was the fountainhead of the Kingdom.
Food is one of the ways of being connected among the different cultural based peoples in all over the world. Different cultural foods of Assam are given below:
- Jolpan (a type of breakfast dish)
- Bora chaulor payash
- Xutuli pitha
- Masor tenga (made with fish)
- Aloo Pitha
- Baanhgajor Lagot kukura (chicken with Bamboo Shoot)
- Ouu Khatta (a type of chutney)
- Cabbage Kofta (made with cheese)
- Pumpkin Oatmeal
- Assam Laska
How to reach
By Road: Assam has a bus service Assam State Transport Corporation or ASTC, which provides buses within Assam and adjoining states.
By Air: The only international airport of Assam is in Guwahati. Another airport is Dibrugarh airport which is well connected with Dimapur, Kolkata, Ahmedabad, Delhi, and Guwahati. Other airports are, Jorhat airport, Lilabari airport, Silchar airport, Tezpur airport which are used as commercial.
Bengaluru, Guwahati, Kolkata
By Railway: There are 259 railway stations in Assam Which have good connectivity with all the sides. Chennai Express is a good service for travelling a long way from Assam to other places within the country.